A generic class to build line-oriented command interpreters.
Interpreters constructed with this class obey the following conventions:
1. End of file on input is processed as the command 'EOF'.
2. A command is parsed out of each line by collecting the prefix composed
of characters in the identchars member.
3. A command `foo' is dispatched to a method 'do_foo()'; the do_ method
is passed a single argument consisting of the remainder of the line.
4. Typing an empty line repeats the last command. (Actually, it calls the
method `emptyline', which may be overridden in a subclass.)
5. There is a predefined `help' method. Given an argument `topic', it
calls the command `help_topic'. With no arguments, it lists all topics
with defined help_ functions, broken into up to three topics; documented
commands, miscellaneous help topics, and undocumented commands.
6. The command '?' is a synonym for `help'. The command '!' is a synonym
for `shell', if a do_shell method exists.
7. If completion is enabled, completing commands will be done automatically,
and completing of commands args is done by calling complete_foo() with
arguments text, line, begidx, endidx. text is string we are matching
against, all returned matches must begin with it. line is the current
input line (lstripped), begidx and endidx are the beginning and end
indexes of the text being matched, which could be used to provide
different completion depending upon which position the argument is in.
The `default' method may be overridden to intercept commands for which there
is no do_ method.
The `completedefault' method may be overridden to intercept completions for
commands that have no complete_ method.
The data member `self.ruler' sets the character used to draw separator lines
in the help messages. If empty, no ruler line is drawn. It defaults to "=".
If the value of `self.intro' is nonempty when the cmdloop method is called,
it is printed out on interpreter startup. This value may be overridden
via an optional argument to the cmdloop() method.
The data members `self.doc_header', `self.misc_header', and
`self.undoc_header' set the headers used for the help function's
listings of documented functions, miscellaneous topics, and undocumented
These interpreters use raw_input; thus, if the readline module is loaded,
they automatically support Emacs-like command history and editing features.
||A simple framework for writing line-oriented command interpreters.|
These are often useful for test harnesses, administrative tools, and
prototypes that will later be wrapped in a more sophisticated interface.
A Cmd instance or subclass instance is a line-oriented interpreter
framework. There is no good reason to instantiate Cmd itself; rather,
it's useful as a superclass of an interpreter class you define yourself
in order to inherit Cmd's methods and encapsulate action methods.
||Methods defined here:|
- __init__(self, completekey='tab', stdin=None, stdout=None)
- Instantiate a line-oriented interpreter framework.
The optional argument 'completekey' is the readline name of a
completion key; it defaults to the Tab key. If completekey is
not None and the readline module is available, command completion
is done automatically. The optional arguments stdin and stdout
specify alternate input and output file objects; if not specified,
sys.stdin and sys.stdout are used.
- cmdloop(self, intro=None)
- Repeatedly issue a prompt, accept input, parse an initial prefix
off the received input, and dispatch to action methods, passing them
the remainder of the line as argument.
- columnize(self, list, displaywidth=80)
- Display a list of strings as a compact set of columns.
Each column is only as wide as necessary.
Columns are separated by two spaces (one was not legible enough).
- complete(self, text, state)
- Return the next possible completion for 'text'.
If a command has not been entered, then complete against command list.
Otherwise try to call complete_<command> to get list of completions.
- complete_help(self, *args)
- completedefault(self, *ignored)
- Method called to complete an input line when no command-specific
complete_*() method is available.
By default, it returns an empty list.
- completenames(self, text, *ignored)
- default(self, line)
- Called on an input line when the command prefix is not recognized.
If this method is not overridden, it prints an error message and
- do_help(self, arg)
- List available commands with "help" or detailed help with "help cmd".
- Called when an empty line is entered in response to the prompt.
If this method is not overridden, it repeats the last nonempty
- onecmd(self, line)
- Interpret the argument as though it had been typed in response
to the prompt.
This may be overridden, but should not normally need to be;
see the precmd() and postcmd() methods for useful execution hooks.
The return value is a flag indicating whether interpretation of
commands by the interpreter should stop.
- parseline(self, line)
- Parse the line into a command name and a string containing
the arguments. Returns a tuple containing (command, args, line).
'command' and 'args' may be None if the line couldn't be parsed.
- postcmd(self, stop, line)
- Hook method executed just after a command dispatch is finished.
- Hook method executed once when the cmdloop() method is about to
- precmd(self, line)
- Hook method executed just before the command line is
interpreted, but after the input prompt is generated and issued.
- Hook method executed once when the cmdloop() method is called.
- print_topics(self, header, cmds, cmdlen, maxcol)
Data and other attributes defined here:
- doc_header = 'Documented commands (type help <topic>):'
- doc_leader = ''
- identchars = 'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789_'
- intro = None
- lastcmd = ''
- misc_header = 'Miscellaneous help topics:'
- nohelp = '*** No help on %s'
- prompt = '(Cmd) '
- ruler = '='
- undoc_header = 'Undocumented commands:'
- use_rawinput = 1